Forest cultivation: Black pine

Forest cultivation: Black pine

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Classification, origin and diffusion

Division: Spermatophyta
Subdivision: Gymnospermae
Class: Coniferae
Family: Pinaceae

Widespread in Southern Europe and Asia Minor. It is a highly variable species and at least five geographic breeds (subspecies) are recognized, including the nigra (Austria and central-northern Italy) and laricio (Corsica, Calabria and Sicily).

Bosco di Pino nero (photo

Female cone of black pine (photo

General characteristics

Size and bearing
40 m high tree with pyramidal crown.
Trunk and bark
Short and convoluted trunk with dark, greyish brown bark, wrinkled and cracked, with sub-rectangular plates.
The needles, in pairs, more or less rigid, are 4-19 cm long and 1-2 mm thick, dark green in color, sharp and pungent.
Reproductive structures
The yellow male cones, sometimes dotted with red, numerous at the base of the young jets; the female ones, sessile, first ovoid then ovate-conical and no more than 8 cm long, are opaque, green with unripe, therefore they take on a brown ocher hue.


Robust tree capable of withstanding intense cold and strong temperature changes.
Forest essence of primary importance, of which numerous and extensive reforestations have been carried out.

Silvicultural aspects

Used widely for reforestation throughout the peninsula, the natural populations of Sila and Sicily and the artificial populations are equally managed. Satin, stripes and holes are practiced with a diameter equal to twice the height of the plants. The shift does not exceed 100 years. The artificial stands are to be considered transitory and will be replaced by the original species. The black pine exerts a favorable effect on the coverage and protection of the soil and in a short time, produces a discreet litter. At the end of the shift, productions of 1000mc per hectare can be reached.

Video: Factory Forest - Slash Pine Plantation. Conservation Education. Wild Wander (July 2022).


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